The Treaty of Falaise, signed by William I, ushered in a period of relative peace in Scotland.
During the reigns of Alexander II and then Alexander III, more land was turned over to agriculture, trade with the continent bolstered the economy and monasteries and abbeys grew and flourished around the country.| Battle of Stirling Bridge A succession crisis brought unrest to Scotland after the death of Alexander III.
Unable to defeat the Caledonians and Picts, the Romans eventually withdrew and over time retreated away from Britain.
While Vikings began to settle in the west, the Picts were forging a new kingdom; the Kingdom of Alba.|Macbeth rules Scotland Immortalised forever in Shakespeare’s fictitious retelling, Macbeth is perhaps one of the best-known early Scottish kings.
Macbeth ruled as King of Alba from 1040 to his death in battle in 1057.|Becoming a feudal society In the 12th century the Kingdom of Alba continued to grow and became a feudal society.
The history of Scotland is fascinating and complex; there are Roman soldiers, Vikings, noble clansmen, powerful ruling monarchs and even enlightened philosophers.
Scotland has experienced extraordinary growth and change during the course of its lifetime - it’s a place that has been invaded and settled many times and that has made mighty contributions to culture and society.
Visit UNESCO for more information.| The Roman Empire Scotland’s recorded history began with the arrival of the Roman Empire.
Despite building two impressive fortifications – Hadrian’s Wall to defend the northern border, and the Antonine Wall across Central Scotland to advance it forward – the Romans never truly conquered Caledonia.
Explore thousands of years of people and events with our timeline that highlights some of the most significant moments in Scotland’s fascinating history.
The Palaeolithic Era The period of earliest known occupation of Scotland by man is from the Palaeolithic era – also known as the Stone Age.
England’s monarch, Edward I, believed he should be recognised as overlord of Scotland and his troops marched north in a series of bloody sieges.